Qing Dynasty, China Culture

Although the Manchus were not Han Chinese and were strongly resisted, especially in the south, they had assimilated a great deal of Chinese culture before conquering China Proper. Realizing that to dominate the empire they would have to do things the Chinese way, the Manchus retained many institutions of Ming and earlier Chinese derivation. They continued the Confucian court practices and temple rituals, over which the emperors had traditionally presided.

China Culture

The Manchus continued the Confucian civil service system. Although Chinese were barred from the highest offices, Chinese officials predominated over Manchu officeholders outside the capital, except in military positions. The Neo-Confucian philosophy, emphasizing the obedience of subject to ruler, was enforced as the state creed. The Manchu emperors also supported Chinese literary and historical projects of enormous scope; the survival of much of China's ancient literature is attributed to these projects.

Qing Dynasty, China

Ever suspicious of Han Chinese, the Qing rulers put into effect measures aimed at preventing the absorption of the Manchus into the dominant Han Chinese population. Han Chinese were prohibited from migrating into the Manchu homeland, and Manchus were forbidden to engage in trade or manual labor. Intermarriage between the two groups was forbidden. In many government positions a system of dual appointments was used--the Chinese appointee was required to do the substantive work and the Manchu to ensure Han loyalty to Qing rule.

 

The Qing regime was determined to protect itself not only from internal rebellion but also from foreign invasion. After China Proper had been subdued, the Manchus conquered Outer Mongolia (now the Mongolian People's Republic) in the late seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century they gained control of Central Asia as far as the Pamir Mountains and established a protectorate over the area the Chinese call Xizang but commonly known in the West as Tibet. The Qing thus became the first dynasty to eliminate successfully all danger to China Proper from across its land borders. Under Manchu rule the empire grew to include a larger area than before or since; Taiwan, the last outpost of anti-Manchu resistance, was also incorporated into China for the first time. In addition, Qing emperors received tribute from the various border states.

Dynasties
Kings / Kingdoms
Events In China
Comments / Worldwide Events
Qing Dynasty (1644 1911 A.D.) Qing Shi Zu

(Sun Zhi)

(1,644 1,662 A.D.)

Shi Zu occupied Beijing; Li Zi Cheng defeated (1,644 A.D.).

Missionary Johann Adam Schall von Bell persecuted in the Calendar Case (1616 A.D.). Zheng Cheng Gong took over Taiwan (1,661 A.D.).

Foundation of Cape Colony by Dutch (1,650 A.D.)

Newtons law of Gravity (1,684 A.D.)

Glorious Revolution Constitutional monarchy in England (1,688 A.D.) 

Wars between America and England (1,755 A.D.)

England defeated France and took over Canada (1,759 A.D.)

Russia- Peasant uprising (1,773 A.D.)

Independent War in America (1,775 A.D.)

France- Revolution began; abolition of feudal system (1,789 A.D.)

France declared a Republic (1,792 A.D.)

Napoleon occupied North Italy (1,796 A.D.)

Napoleon became King of France (1,804 A.D.)

American invented steam boat (1,807 A.D.)

Napoleon attacked Moscow (1,812 A.D.)

Napoleon exiled to Elba; Britain invented train (1,814 A.D.) 

Napoleon made a comeback, and was defeated in Waterloo and exiled to St. Helena (1,815 A.D.)

Born of Carl Marx (1,818 A.D.)

Fall of French Republic (1,852 A.D.)

Beginning of Crimean War. Russia against Britain, France and Turkey (1,854 A.D.)

Civil War in the United States (1,861 1,865 A.D.)

Reform in Japan (1,868 A.D.)

Proclamation of German Empire (1,871 A.D.)

Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India (1,877 A.D.)

Japan invaded Ryukyu; birth of Einstein (1,879 A.D.)

England occupied Egypt (1,883 A.D.) conquered south Africa (1,902 A.D.)

Opening of the Panama Canal (1,904 A.D.)

Qing Sheng Zu

(Kang Xi)

(1,662 1,723 A.D.)

Begin of the Revolt of the Three Feudatories (1,673 A.D.). 

England began trading with China (1,680 A.D.). Revolt of the Three Feudatories suppressed (1,681 A.D.). 

Taiwan captured (1,683 A.D.). 

Delineated boundary between Russia and China (1,689 A.D.). 

Included Mongolia as part of Qings territory (1,697 A.D.)

Suppressed Tibets rebellion (1,720 A.D.)

Qing Shi Zong

(Yong Zheng)

(1,723 1,736 A.D.)

Sunu tried to crown Emperor Kang Xi's eighth son, Yun Yi to be king but failed. Yong Zheng succeded Kang Xi as the third king of the Qing Dynasty. Captured Qing Hai (1,723 A.D.). Same year, Emperor Yong Zheng banned Christianity in China.

Encyclopedia published (1,728 A.D.)

Qing Gao Zong

(Qian Long)

(1,736 1,796 A.D.)

Bishop Peter Sanz executed for violation of the ban on Christianity (1748 A.D.). Conquered Turkestan (1,755 A.D.). To stop the spread of Christianity, Qian Long initiated the Closed Door Policy.

Tea trade with Europe (1,760 1,770 A.D)

Appointed King of Thailand (1,786 A.D.)

Conquered Vietnam (1,787 A.D.)

Lord MaCartneys embassy to China (1,793 A.D.)

Qing Ren Zong

(Jia Qing)

(1,796 1,821 A.D.)

Appointed King of Vietnam (1,803 A.D.)

Christian Literature banned (1,805 A.D.)

Embassy of Lord Amherst of England (1,816 A.D.) 

Qing Xuan Zong

(Dao Guan)

(1,821 1,851 A.D.)

Lin Zexu made commissioner, burnt opium (1,839 A.D.).

Opium War- Britain captured Zhou Shan and attacked Ning Po (1,840 A.D.)

Opium War ended with the signing of Nanjing Treaty; 1) opened up five trading ports and 2) cession of Hong Kong to England (1,842 A.D.)

Qing Wen Zong

(Xian Feng)

(1,851 1,862 A.D.)

Hong Xiu Quan led the Taiping Rebellion (1,851 A.D.), occupied Jin Ling (1,853 A.D.). Missionary James Hudson Taylor came to China (1853 A.D.)

Joint forces of England and France attacked China over the banning of opium (1,857 A.D)

Anglo-French army occupied Beijing, Xian Feng escaped to Re He; Summer Palace looted by British and French troops. China signed Beijing treaty with England, France and Russia to end the war by paying indemnity and giving up more land (1,860 A.D.)

Qing Mu Zong

(Tong Zhi)

(1,862 1,875 A.D.)

When Xiang Feng died, Tong Zhi was only 6 years old. Empress Dowager or better known as Cixi (Tong Zhis mother) ruled China behind curtain until Tong Zhi was 17. After Tong Zhi married, he assumed kingship. Taiping troops defeated in Shanghai (1,862 A.D.)

Zeng GuoFan recovered Jin Ling, and Hong Xiu Quan committed suicide (1,864 A.D.) 

Birth of the Father of China, Sun Wen (1,866 A.D.)

Japan occupied Taiwan (1,874 A.D.)

Tong Zhi's relationship with his mother Empress Dowager fighting over power. Suppressed by his mother, Tong Zhi became a womanizer and eventually contracted a sexually transmitted disease and died at a young age of 19. With Empress Dowagers influence, the officials voted to crown Prince Chuns son as king. Although Tong Zhis wife was pregnant at the time, Cixi wanted Prince Chuns son as king for the following reasons, 1) allowing Tong Zhis son to become king will make Tong Zhis wife queen over herself, 2) Prince Chuns wife is Cixis sister.

Qing De Zong

(Guan Xu) 

(1,875 1,909 A.D.)

Empress Dowager ruled China behind curtain once again with the help of Prince Gong (1875-1908).

Zuo Zhong Tang conquered Xin Jiang.

Sent troops to Vietnam to resist France (1,883 A.D.)

Declared war against France; French troop surrounded Taiwan (1,884 A.D.)

Vietnam fell; China signed peace treaty with France (1,885 A.D.)

Established Bei Tang Navy (1,891 A.D.)

Civil war in Korea. China sent troops to help Korea and sparked the Sino-Japanese war (1,894 A.D.)

Sino-Japanese war ended, signed Ma Guan treaty, giving Taiwan to Japan (1,895 A.D.)

Hundred day reform by Guan Xu. CiXi suppressed reform and ruled again, killing all related officials, and house-arrested Guan Xu. (1,898 A.D.)

France took gulf of Guang Zhou; England took Kowloon; America forced China to open it's door (1,899 A.D.) 

Boxer Rebellion sparked the mass invasion of China by eight countries, including England, America, Germany, France, and Russia (1,900 A.D.).

Signed peace treaty with the eight countries (1,901 A.D.).

Abolished traditional Civil Service System (1,905 A.D.)

There was a mystery surrounding the death of Guan Xu which still casts doubts in the mind of historians. Cixi died in 1909. A few hours before her death, Guan Xu died mysteriously of an unknown cause. Could Cixi have poisoned Guan Xu just hours before her own death? We probably would never find out.

Cixi was also notorious for taking the money that would have gone to strengthen the military and built a park for her own enjoyment, know as the Yi He Yuan. This further weakened China.

Qing Xuan Tong Di

(1,909 1,911 A.D.)

Japan conquered Korea (1,910 A.D.)

Rebellion started in Wu Chang (1,911 A.D.)

The chief threat to China's integrity did not come overland, as it had so often in the past, but by sea, reaching the southern coastal area first. Western traders, missionaries, and soldiers of fortune began to arrive in large numbers even before the Qing, in the sixteenth century. The empire's inability to evaluate correctly the nature of the new challenge or to respond flexibly to it resulted in the demise of the Qing and the collapse of the entire millennia-old framework of dynastic rule.



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