Republic Of China(Zhong Hua Min Guo), China Culture

The Republic of China is a state in East Asia that has evolved from a single-party state with full global recognition into a multi-party democratic state with limited international recognition. It was a founding member of the United Nations. Established in 1912, the Republic of China encompassed much of mainland China. In 1945 at the end of World War II the Republic of China added the island groups of Taiwan (Formosa) and the Pescadores to its authority. These island groups, together with Kinmen and Matsu, became the full extent of the Republic of China's authority after 1949 when the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Chinese Communist Party and the People's Republic of China (PRC) was founded in mainland China. Under ROC law, these areas are known as the Free Area of the Republic of China.

Republic Of China(Zhong Hua Min Guo), China

In 1911, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established in China and the monarchy overthrown. The Qing government, having just experienced a century of instability, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism. The Neo-Confucian principles that had, to that time, sustained the dynastic system were now called into question and a loss of cultural self-confidence was blamed for a total of 40 million Chinese consumers of opium by 1900 (roughly 10% of the population). By the time of its embarrassing defeat by an expeditionary force led by the world's major powers in 1900 during the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion, the Qing government was already in its final throes, with only the lack of an alternative regime in sight prolonging its existence until 1912.

China Culture

The establishment of Republican China developed out of the Wuchang Uprising against the Qing on October 10, 1911. The Republic of China was established on January 1, 1912, with Dr. Sun Yat-sen as the provisional president. As part of the agreement to have the last emperor Puyi abdicate, Yuan Shikai was officially elected president in 1913. However, Yuan dissolved the ruling Kuomintang party (KMT), ignored the provisional Constitution by asserting presidential power, and ultimately declared himself Emperor of China in 1915.


Sun Yat-sen (middle) and Chiang Kai-shek (on stage in uniform) at the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924.Yuan's supporters deserted him, and many provinces declared independence and became warlord states. Yuan Shikai died of natural causes in 1916. This thrust China into a decade of warlordism. Sun Yat-sen, forced into exile, returned to Guangdong province with the help of southern warlords in 1917 and 1920, and set up successive rival governments. Sun re-established the KMT in October, 1919.


Kings / Kingdoms

Events In China

Comments / Worldwide Events

Zhong Hua Min Guo

(1,912- present)

Sun Yatsen (Sun Wen)



1912- Set up temporary government in Nanjing. Switched to Western calendar. Asked the king of Qing Dynasty to resign, and moved to Beijing.

Yuan Shikai


1913- Established congress.

1914- Japan seized Qing island.

1915- Yuan Shikai proclaimed king. Japan forced China to sign a treaty with 21 clauses.

1916- Yuan Shikai died.

Cai Yuanhong


1917- Zhang Xun tried to reestablish the Qing Dynasty but failed. China declared war against Germany.

1919- Demonstration from the students, the 5-4 incidence. Signed peace treaty with Germany.

1921- Establishment of a new government in Guang Zhou, Sun Yatsen (Sun Wen) became the president. Founding of the Communist Party in China by Mao Zedong.


1914- The beginning of the First World War.

1917- Founding of Russia.

1918- End of First World War.

1920- Establishment of the United Nation.

1922- Founding of the Soviet Union.

1934- Hitler became president of Germany.

1935- Germany vowed to rebuild its military forces.

1936- Japanese-German treaty; Japanese-Italy treaty.

1939 The start of the Second World War.

1940- Paris fell.

1941- German attacked Russia, and Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.

1942- United States allied with Russia.

1943- Italy surrendered.

1945- Germany surrendered. United States dropped Atomic Bomb on Japan on 6th of August. Japan surrendered, officially bring a closure to the Second World War.

Cao Kuon



Chiang Kai-Shek

(1925 1975)

1925- Sun Yatsen died, Chiang Kai-Shek replaced him as the head of the government. Chinese citizen killed by British rifles, leading to widespread protest and the 5-30 incidence.

1926- Chiang Kai Shek started the Northward Expedition from Guangzhou.

1927- Chiang occupied Shanghai and Nanjing, and established his capital in Nanjing in April.

1931 Japanese took Shenyang by force, leading to the 9-18 incidence.

1932- Japanese occupied Shanghai and started the 1-28 incidence. Established puppet administration for the ex-Qing Dynasty in the north-east.

1936- Japanese occupied Xian.

1937- Japanese initiated the 7-7 incidence at Luguo Bridge, and attacked Song Hu on 13th of August.

1949- When Communist took over China, Chiang Kai-Shek moved his government to Taiwan.

Yen Jia-Kang

(1975 1988)

1975- Succeeded as president of Taiwan, following Chiang Kai-Sheks death.

Chiang Ching-Kuo

(1978- 1988)

Chiang Ching-Kuo was the son of Chiang Kai-Shek. Known for his economic development program which helped to modernize Taiwan

1972- Chiang Ching-Kuo was elected as premier of Taiwan.

1978- Became President of Taiwan.

Lee Teng-Hui

(1988 2000)

1978- Elected Mayor of Taipei.

1984- Vice-President to Chiang Ching-Kuo.

1988- Succeeded Chiang Ching-Kuo as President of Taiwan.

1990- Elected President of Taiwan. Ammended constitution, so that presidents are to be elected by the public, instead of the National Assembly.

1996- First President in Chinas history to be elected president by its people.


Chen Shui-Bian

(2000 - Present)

Mayor of Taipei

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