Westminster Abbey (whose formal name is the Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster) is a Gothic monastery church that is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English monarchs. Neither a cathedral nor a parish church, Westminster Abbey is a church owned directly by the royal family.
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Located next to the Houses of Parliament in the Westminster neighborhood of London, Westminster Abbey is a must-see for any London visitor. With the oldest parts dating to the year 1050, the Abbey contains some of the most glorious medieval architecture in London Westminster Abbey travel. And because of its royal connections, it was spared King Henry VIII's general assault on monastic buildings during the Reformation.
Westminster Abbey attractions
The coronation throne where monarchs of England have been crowned since the 1300s can be seen in the abbey. Fans of William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, and other giants of literature will enjoy the Poet's Corner full of memorials to these and others. English history or Christian history buffs will enjoy seeing the tombs of the Protestant Elizabeth I and Catholic "Bloody" Mary as well as the tombs of David Livingstone and Charles Darwin. Closer to our own time, in 1998 ten 20th-century Christian martyrs such as Deitrich Bonhoeffer, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Oscar Romero were immortalized in stone statues over the Great West Door.
HistoryAccording to tradition, a shrine was first founded here in 616 on a site then known as Thorney Island. It was said to have been miraculously consecrated after a fisherman on the River Thames saw a vision of Saint Peter. While the existence of this shrine is uncertain, the historic Abbey was built by Edward the Confessor between 1045-1050 and was consecrated on December 28, 1065. Its construction originated in Edward's failure to keep a vow to go on a pilgrimage; the Pope suggested that he redeem himself by building an Abbey.
Westminster Abbey tourism
The original Abbey, in the Romanesque style that is called "Norman" in England, was built to house Benedictine monks. It was rebuilt in the Gothic style between 1245-1517. The first phase of the rebuilding was organised by Henry III, in Gothic style, as a shrine to honor Edward the Confessor and as a suitably regal setting for Henry's own tomb, under the highest Gothic nave in England. The work was largely finished by the architect Henry Yevele in the reign of King Richard II. Henry VII added a Perpendicular style chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary in 1503 (known as the Henry VII Lady Chapel).
Although the Abbey was seized by Henry VIII during the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1534, and closed in 1540, becoming a cathedral until 1550, its royal connections saved it from the destruction wrought on most other English abbeys. The expression "robbing Peter to pay Paul" may arise from this period when money meant for the Abbey, which was dedicated to St. Peter, was diverted to the treasury of St. Paul's Cathedral.
Westminster Abbey attractions
It suffered damage during the turbulent 1640s, when it was attacked by Puritan iconoclasts, but was again protected by its close ties to the state during the Commonwealth period. Oliver Cromwell was given an elaborate funeral there in 1658, only to be disinterred in January 1661 and posthumously hanged from a nearby gibbet. The Abbey was restored to the Benedictines under Queen Mary, but they were again ejected under Queen Elizabeth I in 1559. In 1579, Elizabeth re-established Westminster as a "royal peculiar" – a church responsible directly to the sovereign, rather than to a diocesan bishop – and made it the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, (i.e. a church with an attached chapter of canons, headed by a dean).
The abbey's two western towers were built between 1722 and 1745 by Sir Christopher Wren and Nicholas Hawksmoor, constructed from Portland stone to an early example of a Gothic Revival design. Further rebuilding and restoration occurred in the 19th century under Sir George Gilbert Scott. Until the 19th century, Westminster was the third seat of learning in England, after Oxford and Cambridge. It was here that the first third of the King James Bible Old Testament and the last half of the New Testament were translated. The New English Bible was also put together here in the 20th century.
Westminster Abbey tourism
Since the Christmas Day coronation of William the Conqueror in 1066, all English monarchs (except Lady Jane Grey, Edward V and Edward VIII, who did not have coronations) have been crowned in the Abbey. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the traditional cleric in the coronation ceremony. St. Edward's Chair, the throne on which British sovereigns are seated at the moment of coronation, is housed within the Abbey.
What to SeeHenry III rebuilt the Abbey in honour of the Royal Saint Edward the Confessor, whose memorial and relics were placed in the Sanctuary. The Shrine of St. Edward the Confessor has been the focus of pilgrimages to Westminster Abbey since the Middle Ages. Henry III was buried nearby as were the Plantagenet kings of England, their wives and relatives. Subsequently, most English kings and queens were buried here. However, Henry VIII and Charles I are buried at St. George's Chapel in Windsor Castle, as all royals have been since George II.
Westminster Abbey travel
Aristocrats were buried in side chapels of Westminster Abbey and monks and people associated with the Abbey were buried in the cloisters and other areas. One of these was Geoffrey Chaucer, who was buried here as he had apartments in the Abbey as he was employed as master of the Kings Works.
Other poets were buried around Chaucer in what became known as Poets' Corner. Abbey musicians such as Henry Purcell were also buried in their place of work. Subsequently it became a great honor to be buried or memorialized here. The practice spread from aristocrats and poets to generals, admirals, politicians, scientists, doctors, and others.
The first half of the 18th century, the British architect Nicholas Sihuo Ke Si Muer construction of the western end of the twin towers of the church. 1875, the church positive by the British architect, Gothic revival-style campaign leaders George Gilbert Scott refurbishment. The indulge in Gothic architectural style of architects in the commitment to repair work, often arrogantly destroyed many fine works of non-Gothic caused when the dispute. However, this style of Westminster, might not be a blessing.
Westminster Abbey tourism
British medieval architecture as the main representatives of Westminster Abbey architectural styles and features, although in the construction of the marathon in the constantly changing over from Norman, Gothic, all the way to the early Renaissance style, But it is still the fundamental characteristics of Gothic, after 700 years of repairs and still can maintain original appearance, it is thanks to Scott this architect.
Westminster Abbey mainly by the church and the two major components. This plane was cruciform church, the main part of up to 156 meters, appear on each side of the aisle one, spacious gallery above Taiwan. The court Kuanjin 11.6 meters, but the upper vault as high as 31 meters, is a British Gothic vault height of the crown, therefore the Church in general is a high proportion of narrow, towering tall and straight. General ears appear 62 meters, and the parish Interchange and the four dolphins great size, to support the upper dome. West of the dome singing classes of seats, east of the altar. Church of the western part of the twin towers (l735 ~ 1740) as high as 68.6 meters. Balance of the court vault-level thrust of the arch across the aisle and monasteries Wai Gallery, a complex support system. Church of the east end, that is the end of the axis of the church, Our Lady was originally a chapel, and later destroyed. Early 16th century, at this location has built a larger chapel (1503 to 1519, said another 1502 ~ 1512), the famous Henry VII Chapel, which is a British medieval architecture representative of the most outstanding works, By Luobotewo are designed. Chapel itself is a small church and an independent court and on both sides of the aisle, Lingqin located at one end. Their huge fan-shaped trimmings and inverted hung like a crystal of China and the United States of stalactite vault, design bold and ingenious idea, a unique pattern arch ribs, the building is the most exciting in it. indoor wall niche, Kannei legislation has a total of 95 sculptures. The beautifully-decorated chapel, was considered an "all Christian countries in the United States to what." There are many in the church, as Henry VII chapel dedicated to the dead monarch's construction, people can not help not amazed Westminster Bieyoudongtian within the church. Such as the altar of the east end of St. Edward's Chapel, its central Edwards Cimu built in 1269, pilgrims from around the world of the pilgrims. The main temple there are around King Henry III and other Cimu, formed a different era of the sculpture museum, especially the eastern side of Henry V tomb Diaoshi China and the United States to appear more well known. Westminster is the original intention of building it as a British king's burial grounds, in fact, from George II to Henry III, the King is more than 20 are buried in here. St. Edward's Chapel in the west side of the famous coronation throne of Edward I, the highest in front of the altar on the high-profile, under a throne as "Kuhn" the San Shek, it was originally a Scottish tradition of the coronation of King Seats, is a symbol of his power, in 1297, Edward I had it to London. Incidentally, the Westminster or British coronation of King and royal family members of the wedding. It can be said that Westminster is one of the British royal family rock history books.
Westminster Abbey attractions
The altar in the church backed chairs in front of the Tsim Sha Tsui, successive emperors sit in the throne, said it was a 700 years ago has been used since the antique. Board chairs sit under a big rock, known as "the fate of Stone" (Scone), it is Edward I in the 13th century to the looting. In fact, this is the throne with the King of Scotland, said today the Scots, was also launched to take back this rock movement. And 1996, this piece of Zhibao Scot has returned to its home.
Within the church, a special chapel. That it is special because this is not small chapel dedicated to the monarchs, but Yong dedicated to the national crisis - at the expense of the "Battle of Britain" (1940 fall of the Anglo-German Air Force war) fighters of the Royal Air Force. The small chapel decorated with stained glass on the war was the 68 Squadron of the Air Force team emblem. This is everywhere in the luxury Royal injected a vigorous solemn and stirring the air.
In the church, or of a special commemorative significance of the building, the metropolis for the outstanding figures set aside a place. As the French celebrities buried in Panthéon, the United Kingdom had the honour of the celebrity behind it into Westminster Abbey. Or buried in their church, or to establish the monument. Here some famous politicians, scientists, military strategist, writer of the cemetery, including Churchill, Newton, Darwin, Dickens, Browning, who Tomb. Ear southern wing of the Church "poet angle" is poet and author of the Tomb of Temple to blend. There is also the first time the famous World War II soldiers at the Tomb of the Unknown (1920). So, here the numerous tomb, monument forest,¿°³Æwell-known history of the British pavilion. Moreover, these Cimu and monuments in the construction, there is a Magical Effect: effectively avoid the online church axis momentum may have extraordinary depth of the sense of boring. The church is south of the monastery, founded in the 13th century, is a square yard, located around the Open Arcade, Arcade many ancillary buildings around otherwise. In addition the southeast side of the monastery courtyard, and the Office of underground treasure house of the chapel. The latter is a rectangular Hall, is a temple Museum, the Museum displays the king, queen and dignitaries at the funeral in place for non-covered coffin of the people pondered the statue. These statues are based on the system after the death of face-down, modeling real vivid. One by Edward III (1312 ~ 1377), the most ancient statues to the British Navy Lieutenant General Viscount Nelson statue of the most exquisite, the Hailed as "the embodiment of the marine authority" of British history's most outstanding commanders of the Navy In a sea battle Napoleon, which eventually led to the latter Waterloo loss. Westminster galleries of the magnificent dignified, graceful arches Louke, screen decorated exquisite decoration, colorful glass, Saga tall towers, the whole building is magnificent, quiet solemnity, is considered the British Gothic architecture masterpiece.
Westminster Abbey travel
Westminster Abbey is crowned King successive accession to the throne, the wedding celebrations, is also the seat of the British royal family tomb. The last funeral was held here the members of the royal family is the late Princess Diana. Apart from the royal tombs, is also buried here with many great figures, including Newton, Darwin, Winston Churchill, and so on.
Next to the Westminster Abbey, which stands a one tombstone, engraved above a very famous words:
"When I was young, my dream to change the world when I matured later, I found that I can not change the world, I look a little shorter, I decided to change the country only when I entered the Munian later, I found that I We can not change the country, I just wish the last change, my family, but it can not. When I now lying in bed, Hangqiangjiumu, I suddenly realized: If I just start to change my own And then, I may change my family; his family's help and encouragement, I might do some things for the country and then, who knows «I may even change the world."